Departure from Russia In 1886 Mechnikov returned to Odessa, where he headed the created by him together with N.
In social matters, the hetman always insisted on the need to suppress the "arbitrariness of the blacks."
At the same time, we have no right to ignore the great contribution of Petro Sagaidachny to the development of the liberation movement in Ukraine. With his direct participation in 1620, the Orthodox Church hierarchy resumed its activities, which was a far-sighted political action. The hetman’s concern for the development of the Kyiv and Lviv fraternities, his financial support of schools, and his desire to educate dozens of young people should not be underestimated.
Thus, intertwining, complementing or contradicting each other, these traits created a holistic and original image of Peter Konashevich-Sagaydachny – a famous politician of the first half of the XVII century., Cossack leader, just a man.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov: biographical information and scientific activity. Abstract
Family. Years of study. The beginning of scientific activity. Creating the foundations of evolutionary embryology. At Novorossiysk University. Messina. Phagocytosis and phagocytic theory of immunity. Odessa bacteriological station. Departure from Russia. Pasteur Institute
Family. Years of study
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was born on May 3 (15), 1845 in the estate of Panasivka in the village of Ivanivka, now Kupyansky district of Kharkiv region. The Mechnkov family of nobles is associated with a family of Moldavian boyars, among whom stands out the famous in the 17th century bright personality of NG Spafari.
Spafari’s nephew, Yuri Stepanovich, who moved to Russia in 1711, had the rank of swordsman; his son took the surname Mechnikov. Mechnikov’s father, Ilya Ivanovich, a capital officer of Epicurean character, was an educated man. His mother, Emilia Lvivna, nee Nevakhovych, came from a merchant class. Her father, a Jew, having accepted Lutheranism in his mature years, moved to St. Petersburg, retired and engaged in philosophy and literature. He was a member of the literary circles of the capital, introduced with Pushkin and Krylov.
Mechnikov spent his childhood on the estate of his father Panasivka, where he awoke a love of nature and interest in the natural sciences, which was formed under the influence of a medical student, home teacher Leo’s older brother.
In 1856 Mechnikov immediately entered the 2nd grade of the Kharkov gymnasium, which he graduated with a gold medal in 1862. As a high school student Mechnikov attended lectures on comparative anatomy and physiology at Kharkov University, engaged in microscopy, read scientific literature, as well as fashionable at the time. L. Buchner, J. Moleschott, L. Feuerbach.
After graduating from high school Mechnikov went to study in Germany, but embarrassed by the cold reception of Russian students and landlords, immediately returned to Russia and entered the Department of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Kharkiv University. From the trip Mechnikov brought "The Origin of Species" by Darwin – a book that greatly influenced the formation of his evolutionary-materialist views.
The beginning of scientific activity
Mechnikov completed a four-year university course in two years. Until now, the 19-year-old candidate of science under the influence of Darwin has identified his scientific goal of finding intermediate forms between different groups of invertebrates. In 1864 he went abroad and first worked for Fr. Helgoland in the North Sea, where he found a new group of worms – gastrotrich, related to nematodes and rotifers.
In the autumn of the same year, Mechnikov moved to the University of Giessen, to the laboratory of R. Leikart, where he became possible thanks to a state scholarship received with the assistance of NI Pirogov. Here Mechnikov discovered a complex cycle of development (alternation of generations) in parasitic nematodes.
Creating the foundations of evolutionary embryology
In 1865 Mechnikov moved to Naples to continue his research, where he met AA Kovalevsky. The acquaintance, having grown into a long-term friendship, determined the direction of Mechnikov’s scientific activity. Here, on the shores of the Gulf of Naples, he and Kovalevsky began to study the embryonic development of marine invertebrates. These studies, subject to the main idea – proof of the unity of origin of all groups of animals, marked the beginning of evolutionary embryology.
By the time he returned to Russia (1867), Mechnikov had achieved important results. Having studied the development of cephalopods, he made a fundamental generalization: in the embryonic development of invertebrates, the same embryonic leaves are formed as in vertebrates. This position formed the basis of a master’s thesis, which Mechnikov defended at St. Petersburg University in 1867.
Studying warworms – planarians, Mechnikov first discovered (1865) the phenomenon of intracellular digestion. Together with Kovalevsky, Mechnikov in 1867 received the K. Behr Prize, awarded by the Academy of Sciences for his work on embryology. At the same time he was elected associate professor at Novorossiysk University, and in 1868 became a private associate professor at St. Petersburg University and in the same year defended his doctoral dissertation.
In 1868-70, with short breaks, Mechnikov continued his research abroad on the embryology of various groups of invertebrates.
At Novorossiysk University
From 1870 to 1882 Mechnikov was an ordinary professor at the Department of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at Novorossiysk University in Odessa. It was a difficult period in the life of a scientist. In 1873, Mechnikov’s first wife, LV Fedorovich, died of tuberculosis.
Mechnikov was a painful vulnerability and experienced this event so hard that he attempted suicide (he was saved by a very large dose of morphine, which caused vomiting). Mechnikov’s relationship with colleagues and university officials, as well as with radical students, cost him a lot of nervous tension. The confrontation led to the fact that in 1882 Mechnikov left the university.
Despite the unfavorable circumstances, these years were not fruitless for Mechnikov. Many years of study of the development of sponges, echinoderms and jellyfish has led to the formation of 123helpme.me the concept of the origin of multicellular animals. According to Mechnikov, their ancestor was not a two-yard hollow gastritis E. Haeckel (1873), and an archaic organism, representing a compact mass of cells, called the Swordfish parenchyma. Later, in 1886, Mechnikov renamed the parenchyma to phagocytosis. The latter name also reflected the diet of this hypothetical organism.
In connection with the mass reproduction of insect pests in the Odessa and Kiev provinces, Mechnikov first used in Russia in 1879 a biological method of plant protection – infection with the pathogenic fungus bread beetle (beetle) and beet weevil.
Messina. Phagocytosis and phagocytic theory of immunity
In the autumn of 1882 Mechnikov, together with his wife Olga Nikolaevna Belokopitova (the second marriage was in 1875), a friend and assistant in all matters, went to Messina, where he made his most famous discovery.
Once, when Mechnikov observed under a microscope the living cells (amebocytes) of starfish larvae, it occurred to him that these cells, capturing and digesting organic particles, not only participate in digestion, but also perform a protective function in the body. Mechnikov confirmed this assumption with a simple and convincing experiment.
After inserting a spike of a rose into the body of a transparent larva, he saw after a while that amebocytes had accumulated around the brace. Cells that either absorb or envelop foreign bodies ("harmful agents") that have entered the body, Mechnikov called phagocytes, and the phenomenon itself – phagocytosis. Next, in 1883, Mechnikov made a report at the Congress of Researchers and Physicians in Odessa "On the healing powers of the body."
He devoted the next 25 years of his life to the development of the phagocytic theory of immunity. To do this, he turned to the study of inflammatory processes, infectious diseases and their pathogens – pathogenic microorganisms. "Before that, a zoologist – I immediately became a pathologist," wrote Mechnikov. Working on the phagocytic theory, Mechnikov, however, in 1884 and 1885 performed a number of studies on comparative embryology, which are considered classical.
Odessa bacteriological station. Departure from Russia
In 1886 Mechnikov returned to Odessa, where he headed the first in Russia and the second in the world bacteriological station created by him together with NF Gamaleya, which was to be engaged in the manufacture of vaccines and vaccinations against rabies, locust control, etc. To work Mechnikov attracted a group of young enthusiasts DK Zabolotny, LA Tarasevich, NF Gamalei, who later became famous microbiologists.
However, due to obstacles posed to him by the official authorities, Mechnikov resigned from the station. He finally made the decision to leave Russia and seek refuge abroad. In 1887 Mechnikov left for Germany, and in the autumn of 1888, at the invitation of L. Pasteur, he moved to Paris and organized a laboratory at his institute.
Mechnikov’s 28-year stay at the Pasteur Institute was a period of fruitful work and general recognition. He was elected a member of many academies and scientific communities, including an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1902), and in 1908, together with P. Ehrlich, received the Nobel Prize for work on immunity.
Focusing on pathology, Mechnikov created in this period a series of works on the microbiology and epidemiology of cholera, plague, typhus, tuberculosis.
In 1891-92 Mechnikov developed what is closely related to the problem of immunity – the doctrine of inflammation. Considering this process in a comparative-evolutionary aspect, he assessed the phenomenon of inflammation itself as a protective reaction of the body aimed at the release of foreign substances or foci of infection.
In recent years, Mechnikov tried from the standpoint of a biologist and pathologist to create a "theory of orthobiosis, ie proper life, based on the study of human nature and the establishment of means to correct its disharmonies …". Believing that old age and death occur in humans prematurely, Mechnikov gave a special role to the microbes of the intestinal, poisoning the body with their toxins.
The diet, hygienic means old age, as Mechnikov believed, can be treated, like any disease. Mechnikov believed that with the help of science and culture man is able to overcome the contradictions of human nature (including between puberty and marriage), to prepare for a happy existence and, with the natural transition from "instinct of life" to "instinct of death "- fearless end.