Mecca did not find support, and after Khadija’s death he began to look for supporters outside Mecca.

Mecca did not find support, and after Khadija’s death he began to look for supporters outside Mecca.

Myth is not a product of ignorance, it is just another way of relating to the world.

Myth is an attempt to find real connections with nature. The myth does not have a clearly defined plot, is not told as a fairy tale, it is experienced as a real being. Myth has no faith, because nature is close and understandable to man. Eventually, the mythical consciousness becomes contradictory, because there is a need to behave differently than nature demands, that is, in addition to family there are other relationships that did not exist in nature before: the embryos of art, political activity, the first legal norms.

There are types of myths:

The myth of the creation of the universe. The myth of the destruction of the universe (Apocalypse of John the Theologian). The myth of cyclical nature (pastoral and agricultural myths). Heroic myths (about heroes, founders of tribes – Greek myths about Hercules). Myths about people’s acquisition of cultural skills (the myth of Prometheus).

Faith as a phenomenon of human existence.

In many languages, the word “faith” is interpreted as a credit, a gift. There are trust, characterized by a psychological state of calm, confidence, and one’s own faith (in a person, in a charismatic leader). Faith in a person causes bigotry.

Religious faith is the confidence in the real existence of supernatural beings, special qualities in certain objects. In practice, it is the belief in saints, prophets, teachers, clergy, in the possibility of communication with spirits, the truth of dogmas and religious texts. In the theological sense, religious faith acts as the highest manifestation of human consciousness, the highest value.

God is transcendent, that is, outside our consciousness, God cannot be comprehended logically (evidence of God’s existence in medieval scholasticism, or the mystical way of comprehension, when a person in a state of ecstasy goes beyond himself and gets an idea of the structure of the universe and the essence of God). You can believe in many gods – polytheism (ancient Greek religion), or in one – monotheism (religion of the ancient Jews).

Pagan beliefs of the ancient Slavs

Like other pagan religions, the religion of the ancient Slavic tribes was based on a mystical attitude to nature. The Slavs adored natural phenomena and the forces of nature.

The Slavs believed in many gods. Modern scholars believe that pagan gods, considered a manifestation of primitive mythology, were in fact representations of our ancestors about the universe. The primary sources of the universe were considered to be fire and water. Most of the gods of the pagan Slavic gods are known to us from folklore sources: songs, carols.

The main gods of the pantheon:

Svarog – according to the Ipatiev chronicle, taught people marriage, farming and gave them a plow. See – was an even more ancient god than Saurog, he embodied a bright blue celestial vault. See – the masculine beginning of the universe, light. Lada is one of the most ancient pagan goddesses, the goddess of harmony in nature, the people in marriage, the mother-sustainer of the World. Lada is the mother of twins Leli (Dana) – embodied water, and Polel – embodied light. Perun – is mentioned in the texts of treaties with Byzantium, which refers to the oath of the warriors of Russia named Perun and Volos. Translated means lightning, he was the god of the prince’s wife, all the myths about Perun, preserved in Ukraine, depict him as an archer. Dazhbog is the name of the sun god in Russia. Volos (Veles) – one of the most ancient gods, the patron saint of cattle, who was a formidable lord of other gods and in Russia was second only to Perun. Mokosh – the goddess of rivers and fertility,

Today, scholars interpret the “spheres of influence” of these gods differently.

Even after the introduction of Christianity in Russia, among the religious holidays, folk customs and traditions, much remains of the pagan beliefs of the ancient Slavs.

The life of the founder of Buddhism, Prince Gautami (Buddha). (k / r)

Features of Buddhist dogma and cult. (k / r)

Greek Catholic Church in Ukraine

The emergence of the Greek Catholic Church was due to political reasons: Orthodox believers were oppressed by Poles who tried to spread Catholicism. These efforts provoked resistance from Orthodox believers, so there were ideas about the union, ie the union of the Orthodox faith with the Catholic.

The union was proclaimed in 1596. in Brest (Brest Union). Thus the division of believers into Uniates and Orthodox took place. In the Uniate Church, worship, church, and rites remained as they were in the Orthodox Church, but the church was subordinate to the Pope, and the dogma of the descent of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son was Catholic, as was the dogma of purgatory. Catholic churches.

The first attempt at union belonged to Danylo Halytsky during the Tatar-Mongol invasion.

The heyday of the Greek Catholic Church falls on the 19th table. Metropolitan Andriy Sheptytsky (Lviv – 2nd half of the 20th century) is one of the main figures of the Greek Catholic movement.

Modern religious life in Ukraine (one direction or church)

According to statistics, 72-78% of the population of Ukraine are believers. This percentage is divided between canonical (historically existing) denominations in Ukraine and new churches, sects and religious associations that are part of Protestantism or represent Eastern religious systems (Krishnaism).

Recently (after the collapse of the Soviet Union) Ukraine has been characterized by a significant revival of religious life. There are two areas of development: the emergence of various sects and religious associations spreading from the West (mostly the United States), and the restoration of Orthodoxy, which is characterized in the first by the construction of new churches.


church – a religious organization that includes the majority or a significant part of the population. Its structure presupposes the existence of a hierarchy of cult ministers – priests. sect – is formed of believers who oppose the basic religious teachings. They are characterized by a claim to the exclusivity of their role.

Today, several Protestant denominations have spread in Ukraine: Baptists, Evangelicals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Pentecostals, and so on.

The way of life and religious mission of Moses

When Moses was born, his mother hid his birth for three months because of Pharaoh’s order to kill the baby boys, and then put the baby in a basket and left it on the river bank. Pharaoh’s daughter found the child and decided to take her, and his various mother fed him. When Moses grew up, he realized that it was very difficult for the Jews to live in Egypt: they worked hard and were abused. Later, when Pharaoh wanted to kill Moses for killing an Egyptian, he fled to the land of Mediam, where he married Zipphorus and had a son.

One day the Lord appeared to Moses in the form of a burning field of thorns, and said to him that he understood the suffering of his people and decided to free them and take them to another land, so Moses had to go to Pharaoh, tell everyone about his vision and convey the Lord’s will. However, Pharaoh refused to release the people of Israel from Egypt, and the lives of the Jews worsened.

And then the Lord sent a punishment on Egypt: the water turned to blood, there was an invasion of frogs and flies, an epidemic of plague, hail, locusts and darkness, the death of all the firstborn and all the firstborn of animals. Only then did Pharaoh release the Jews, and after 430 years of living in Egypt, they left him. This event – the exodus of the Jews from Egypt – is a great holiday for the Jews. On this day they celebrate Easter. The Old Testament describes in detail the statutes of the Passover.

Basic principles of Judaism and features of rituals

The basic principle of Judaism is the belief in a single god, formed gradually by merging the concepts: God of the Fathers, Yahweh (who was the god of the mountains and deserts of the ancient Jews), and the Lord – a formidable god who appeared before Moses. The God of the Old Testament has many names: Sava, Yahweh, Jehovah, Elohim, depending on the context of their use. Bloody sacrifices were forbidden in Judaism.

We know from the Old Testament that the descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob, the twelve tribes of Israel, were enslaved in Egypt. God called Moses to deliver them. When God himself sent “10 executions” to Egypt, Pharaoh released the people of Israel, but then changed his mind and ordered his army to catch up with Moses near the Red Sea. And here, at God’s command, the sea waters parted, and over the Egyptian army closed. This event is celebrated during the feast of Easter.

Jews believe in the afterlife, but Judaism pays the most attention to earthly life. The founder can be considered Moses (lived c. 1250 BC), to whom God passed the Torah (covenant). Judaism is based on the Torah, or “law” – the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. The Torah means not only “law”, but also “teaching”, “instruction”. The Torah contains God’s teaching about himself, about the purpose of creation, and that his people must be obedient to him. Reading the Torah is the most important part of the service in the synagogue (assembly), where believers pray to God in prayer.

The Torah contains 613 commandments: 238 commandments and 365 prohibitions are God’s instructions to be followed by believers.

Jews observe the Sabbath, a day when all work is forbidden, a day reminiscent of the last day of creation.

The holy place for the Jews is the Wailing Wall. 2000 years ago a temple was built in the capital of the ancient Jewish state of Jerusalem by order of King Herod, today only the Western Wall remains – the Wailing Wall, which is a monument to the destruction of the temple and the state. Today, Jews from all over the world come to pray near the Wailing Wall.

Islam. the prophetic mission of the founder of Islam, Muhammad

Islam, like Buddhism or Christianity, is one of the most widespread religions and has millions of followers around the world. The emergence and spread of the Muslim religion is associated with the life and work of the Prophet Muhammad. According to Muslims, Muhammad is the prophet of Allah and his messenger, through whom the text of the Qur’an was transmitted to the people.

Muhammad’s life story: Muhammad was born in Mecca to a poor family, his parents died and he was raised in his grandfather’s house, and from an early age he was familiar with trade. He was hired to run the affairs of a wealthy Meccan widow, Khadija, whom he married at the age of 25. After that he traded for some time, after which he acted as a preacher. When he was 40, he began to see a vision: the news that he was a prophet of God. He had the archangel Jedrail, who then in the month of Ramadan in a dream dictated to the vice the text of the Qur’an – the holy book of Muslims.

Muhammad began to preach, but found no support in Mecca, and after Khadija’s death he began to look for followers outside Mecca.